1. don rnam par nges pa shes rab ral gri.
2.  the nges shes rinpoche sgron me.
3.  nyida barwe dronme.
4. don rnam par nges pa shes rab ral gri 'i 'grel pa nyi zla 'bar ba'i sgron me
5. dpung tshogs yan lag bshi:  horse, elephant, chariot, foot.
6. {stobs bcu} - Ten Powers. Those powers developed by bodhisattvas are 1) reflection, {bsam pa'i stobs} or aashayabala 2) superior reflection, {lhag bsam} or adhyaasa 3) acquisition {sbyor ba} or pratipatti 4) discriminative awareness, {shes rab} or prajnaa 5) aspiration {smon lam} or pra.nidhaana 6) vehicle {theg pa}. or yana 7) conduct {spyod pa}. or charyaa 8) transformation {rnam par 'phrul pa} or vikurvana 9) enlightenment {byang chub kyi sems} or bodhicitta, and 10) turning the doctrinal wheel {chos kyi 'khor lo bskor ba} or dharma-chakra-pravartana.    See rgyud bla ma.  The ten powers of a tathagata:  {gnas dang gnas min mkhyen pa'i stobs} power of knowing what is possible and impossible; {las kyi rnam par smin pa mkhyen pa'i stobs} power of knowing how actions will ripen; {mos pa sna tshogs mkhyen pa'i stobs} power of knowing the different dispositions of human beings; {khams sna tshogs mkhyen pa'i stobs} the power of knowing different elements; {dbang po mchog dang mchog ma yin pa'i stobs} power of knowing the supreme and lesser powers of human beings; {thams cad du 'gro ba'i lam mkhyen pa'i stobs:  power of knowing the path that lads everywhere; {bsam gtan rnam par thar pa dang ting nge 'dzin dang snyom par 'jug pa'i kun nas nyon mongs pa rnam par 'byung ba dang dang ldan pa tams cad mkhyen pa'i stobs} omniscience regarding the original of all suffering and which leads to dhyana, liberation, samadhi, and samapatti; {sngon gi gnas rjes su dran pa mkhyen pa'i stobs-power of knowledge that remembers former abodes {shi pho ba dang skye ba mkhyen pa'i stobs} power of knowing death, transmigration, and birth {zag pa zad pa
7. Grasping, duality and so forth.
8. {mi 'jigs pa bzhi} - Four Fearlessnesses. Fearlessness in the knowledge of all things {chos thams cad mkhyen pa la mi 'jigs pa}. or sarva-dharma-abhisambodhi vaishaaradya, fearlessness in knowing all the cessations of corruption {zag pa zad pa thams cad mkhyen pa la mi 'jigs pa}. or sarvaashravak.saya jnaana-vaishaaradya, fearlessness according to the definitive prophetic declarations that these things which are intermittently cut off on the path. do not change into something else {bar du gcod pa'i chos rnams gzhan du mi 'gyur bar nges pa'i lung bstan pa la mi 'jigs pa}. or antaraayika-dharmaananyathaatva nishcitavyaakara.navaishaaradya, and the fearlessness that the path through which all excellent attributes are to be obtained, transformed and ascertained, is just what it is {phun sum tshogs pa thams cad thob par 'gyur bar nges par 'byung ba'i lam de bzhin du gyur ba la mi 'jigs pa}. or sarvasampadadhigamaaya naira.nikapratipat tathaatvavaishaaradya.
 Thus Buddha is compared to a lion.  Of the four fearlessnesses two are related to the buddhas themselves and two to sentient beings.  The buddha has no fear, hesitation or doubt in saying he is realized, has removed all obscurations.  Those are the two pertaining to himself.  He has no fear to show the clear facts to other beings and pacify their  mistakes on the path.  Those are the two relating to others.
9. Eternalists and nihilists have the greatest ignorance among human beings, as elephants have the largest bodies among animals.
10. Having perfected the two accumulations, one attains the two wisdoms of nature and extent.
11. The Buddha is compared to a snow lion living in glaciers and snowy mountains, and this again, in its brilliance, to the sun.
12. brtul zhugs gnyis
13. For bcu yi read bcu gnyis KPSR.
14. This is adopted from Jigme Lingpa to increase blessings.  Most of this praise comes from various great masters, as does the next line, praising Padmasambhava.
15. He is compared to Amitabha.
16. This is how he was born.
17. This is his buddha activity.
18. At the beginning of his commentary on the tshad ma rnam 'grel.
19. Compared to Indra's hundred-pointed vajra.
20. Master not only of the teachings, but all the three jewels.
21. mchod KTDR said "praise."
22. Also by Mipham.
23. Sarasvati is often called "daughter of the swan."
24. The sems sde, klong sde, and man ngag sde ati text collections of mind, space, and the oral instructins..  Or perhaps also the vehicles of the teachings maha, anu, and ati.  It could also denote outer inner and secret trios comprising all the nine yanas.
25. By {brgyud pa gsum} - Three Lineages. Intentional, or mind-to mind lineage of buddhas, symbolic lineage of awareness-holders, and aural lineage of mundane individuals.
26. In Hindu mythology he is a rishi who swallows all the rivers and oceans.  The gods were very worried.  They offered him praises and finally he vomited some up again.  Similarly we should praise the vidyadharas.  This was written by the first Kongtrul, Shechen, and Petrul, pupils of the first Khyentse.  But KPSR also added something.
27. The learned masters are compared to Indra's 32 ministers.
28. sa srung steng na: Elephants as the vehicle of Indra
29. Aryadeva once said Indra has 1000 eyes but still didn't realize the true nature.  I have one eye of wisdom and realize everything.  KPSR.
30. With its four powers.  This represents his buddha activity.
31. This was written by KPSR's teacher Khenpo Khato.  He came from kha to.  He also adopted the next two lines from shechen master Dudul Namgyel, another shechen master.  the following two lines are praise to Mipham by khato sechur chàkyi gyamtso, Mipham's student.
32. Representing negative obscurations.
33. Now there is prediction of Longchenpa by Padmasambhava found quite late by a terton of the late 1900s.  Gnubs refers to Nubchen Sangye Yeshe, one of the 25 main students of Padmasambhava.  He was a yogi of Manjushri or Yamantaka.  He predicts that his emanation of called Mipham will come and that he will have a great ability to reveal mind termas.
 In many predictions it is said that when the first Khyentse, Kongtrul, and Mipham came that delayed by sixty years, the coming of a bad time in Tibet.  Perhaps the fall of Tibet would already have occurred by 1900 without them.  In particular Mipham was a predicted to be a special antidote for the armies at the edge of the bad time, the armies of the barbarians.  It is said that in his time a Chinese army came to where he was in Chamdo.  He stayed in the road, but the army never came.  They went another way, and everyone was amazed.
 Before his parinirvana he said, "Now I am going to die, and I will not come here again and reincarnate.  Tibet will not be as it was any longer.  Instead I will go to the kingdom of Shambhala and be the chief minister of the king there.  They asked him to teach Kalachakra the day of his passing.  Also he asked one of his students to teach Kalachakra at Khato monastery.
  There are other predictions by Padmasambhava, but I could not find them all.  Also Pema Osel Dangalampa said he could write a big book about Mipham's previous lives and prophesies, but that Mipham wouldn't like it.  The first Khyentse, Mipham's root guru enthroned him as an emanation of Manjushri, with a sword and lotus.  He also wrote this one stanza saying, "You are like Manjushri and in revering the ultimate meaning of the teachings of Manjushri, Maitreya, Nagarjuna, Asanga, and Dharmakirti, you are incomparable, and therefore I honor you as Manjushri.
34. Now there is a prediction by the first Dudjom Rinpoche, khrag thung bdud 'joms gro lod, predicting Mipham Rinpoche's name and his activities.
35. There are many others, so many that KPSR could not find them all.
36. Discussed below.  KTDR said spobs here could also be translated "courage."
37. {so so yang dag par rig pa bzhi} - fourfold correct discriminations/knowledges, the four discriminating/analytical knowledges.  Respectively they understand all 1) {don}. = meanings, 2) {chos}. = dharmas, 3) {nges pa'i tshig}. = languages, verbal discrimination 4) {spobs pa}.  Confidences, here in the areas of ready speech, accurate penetration, etc.
38. He is very original, not simply repeating what is said by others.
39. Through respect.
40. He was given something like twenty names,
41. The outline KPSR follows in this commentary was composed by Mipham himself.
42. nges pa here has a verbal force like nges byed,  KPSR.
43. Gnubs chen sangs rgyas ye shes
44. gnad gsal bar phye ba bsam gtan mig gi sgron me
45. gtan tshigs.
46. On the level of contemplation we cannot just look at things and get the whole truth about them.  We have to explore them through reasoning, seek out their characteristics and so forth.  Often rigs pa and gtan tshigs are the same, referring to reason in general.  Here gtan tshigs is concerned more with the actual process of reasoning and rigs pa is more like the resulting certainty-wisdom, or unmistakable knowledge.  Accurate gtan tshigs brings up unmistakable rigs pa in your mind.  Then you contemplate and analyze it further.  At last you find the wisdom of perfect meaning.  Dharmakirti says that we cannot just accept any scripture at face value and expect to get the truth.  Reliable understanding develops through the process of examination by reasoning.
47. Some titles reflect the meaning of a text, particular words that are discussed, the name of the place where the teaching was taught, or of the person who requested it, or a metaphor that is frequently used.  Here the name unites the meaning and metaphor.  KPSR.
48. grub mtha', doctrine, is often used elsewhere in a sense where the doctrine is not necessarily true.
49. don.
50. By seeing the true nature.
51. All the Indian schools accept that there is something confused, unclear, or incomplete about the ordinary worldly viewpoint or doctrine.  Their various viewpoints are meant to remedy this lack or confusion.  They are the various kinds of doctrine beyond the world, which are supposed to be beyond confusion as well.  However, the Buddhist view tends to consider all non-buddhist views as confused and worldly.  They are opposed to Buddhist views as versions of the view beyond the world.  KPSR.
52. phyal ba, rgyangs 'phen, mur thug, and mu stegs.  This text gives a condensed version of some teachings of the Guhyasamaja and Guhyagharba tantras.  Here Padmasambhava's summary of confused worldly views is not by names of schools, but kinds of beliefs.  In this quotation there are only the names of the various kinds of worldly doctrine.  However the text goes on to explain clearly and concisely what these terms mean.  phyal ba means literally "flat ones," are those who think the perfect state consists of temporary pleasures, eating, drinking, sleeping, and so forth.  They think that is enough perfection for us and that there is nothing more.
 The gyang phen pas have a stronger view of a similar kind.  gyang phen literally means "throwing away."  They do not worry about past and future lives, but live for the here and now.  They have a stronger tendency to ignorance and tend nihilistically to deny and deprecate the past and future.  They cling to the present, and "throw away" the past and future.
 Mur thug pas have a very limited and shrunken idea of what is proper.  They are fixated on ritualistic, regimented orthodoxy.  They all go in the same direction like sheep.  It is like living in a small room with a low ceiling only one window to look out of, so that what can be seen is always the same very limited view.  [mur thug literally means reaching the edge, limit, or an extreme state.  They go about as far as they can go CIW]
 mu steg pas express extreme views of eternalism and nihilism.  They like to live on the edge in that sense, [mu stegs means literally taking extremes as a support, such as a table. CIW]  KPSR.
53. ska ba dpal brtsegs, in his lta ba rim pa bshad pa.  He was one of the first seven monks ordained by Shantarakshita.  He is one of the three famous translators mentioned in histories and so forth as Ka, Chok, and Shang.  {ska cog zhang gsum} - the three young translators. 1) {ska ba dpal brtsegs}. 2) {cog ro klu'i rgyal mtshan}. 3) {zhang ye shes sde}
Ka wa is his family name.  He was one of the twenty-five famous students of Padmasambhava.  This is a well-known text describing all the various kinds of views.  KPSR
54. These numbers refer to seventeen different levels of view that he describes.  The worldly level concerns tarkaya, in Tibetan rtog ge pas, those who are followers of conceptual thought.  Those with views beyond the world to varying extents go beyond the realm of concept.  One should understand the workings and relationships of the various kinds of views.  They might be compared to various objects, that might be made out of gold, with varying levels of craftsmanship and artistry.  Finally, one can stop, and leave them all alone, accepting only that which is best, the pure view beyond the world of the ultimate essence.  The old masters of all schools learned the whole range of views, Buddhist and otherwise, so they could know what was good in each and what was best and why.  KPSR.
55. Pramana, tshad ma means perfect, reliable, valid, authentic, and non-erroneous.  It can be applied to perfect persons, correct perception, valid logical inference, trustworthy scripture, and so forth.  Of course we must give reasons why this is so, since no one thinks their own doctrine is invalid.  The three pramanas, tshad ma gsum, are perceptual, inferential, and scriptural pramana, mngon sum tshad ma, rjes dpag tshad ma, and lung tshad ma.  In vajrayana the tshad ma gsum are a little different:  lung, dam ngag, rig pa, scripture, oral instruction, and rig pa in the sense not of conceptual understanding but direct insight.  KPSR.
56. Those arising from obscurations of the kleshas and distorted knowing.
57. That Buddha abandons all error entails that he has true knowledge, just as when all darkness and murkiness disappears, it follows that it is bright and clear.  KPSR.
58. The buddhas have omniscient, direct knowledge of all natures throughout the three times.  Therefore, they have no need to infer hidden characteristics by inference.  KPSR
59. 3 analyses.   What is valid knowledge of perception is commonly established by 1) investigating perception.   Eg, by looking we can see that there is a glass here.  But not all knowledge is  perceptual.  There is also valid inference using reliable signs. Eg we hear a car outside, and by that we infer that a car is there.  This is not just unsupported opinion.  2)  Inferential investigation shows that we have a justification for our conclusion.  But it is not the highest certainty either.  Wisdom could have direct perception of the car, just as when we directly see a car in front of us.  It sees the nature of things as they are, eg. emptiness, impermanence etc.  Things that are very hidden and hard to discover and cannot even be known by reasons can still be known by 3) investigation of true words.  For example the Buddha predicted certain events that later actually occurred.  He predicted that various good things would happen if certain practices were followed.  Those who believed him eventually verified this.  These teachings are beyond our ordinary thought.   They cannot be verified at once by ordinary thought, but later can be by wisdom.  For example, in the beginning we cannot verify that all beings have Buddha nature.  We must take it on trust.  But if we become enlightened, we can see the truth of this for ourselves.  It becomes direct perception.  Therefore, through these three investigations, we can eventually verify for ourselves with certainty that the Buddha's teaching is reliable.
 Moreover, if we simply take all the teachings on one level, without taking into account how they were taught for beings on different levels with different powers of mind and so forth they will seem to be contradictory,  But if we understand the intention, they will be seen to be authentic and reliable.
60. The three kinds of inferential reasoning are 1) grags pa rjes dpag, inference from reports, 2) dgnos stobs rjes dpag, inference from the power of the thing itself, inference from reality itself.  This is the one that ultimately shows that the teachings are true.  3) yid ches rjes dpag, the inference of trust of faith.  For example, at first we take on trust the teachings that the practice of the six paramitas brings enlightenment.  These three kinds of inferential reasoning having all the three modes are necessary when we are analyzing knowledge that at that time is not knowable by us through direct perception.  The three analyses and the three pramanas, dpyad gsum and tshad ma gsum, are the same in general.  But tshad ma gsum and 3 inferences are somewhat different.  KPSR.
61. The presence of the dharma in the subject, forward entailment, and reversed entailment, phyogs chos, rjes khyab nd ldog khyab.  These are discussed below.
62. To explain the last line of the above root verses, the inner nature of that individual certainty wisdom is Manjushri, so now we pay respect to him.
63. External knowledge is Manjushri's blessing, which leads to wisdom through a proper attitude of devotion about what is known with the three gates.
64. One of the four reasonings as discussed below.
65. The reason in this case is, "because it is taught by the Buddha, who has completely given up all errors.  This, in logical terminology, is a reason of effect.  In general, there are three kinds of reason: gtan tshigs or in Sanskrit hetu.  These are  1)  rang bzhin gyi rtags, the reason of nature, 2)  bras bu'i rtags, the reason of effect 3)  ma dmigs pa'i rtags, the reason of non-observation. The reasons of effect and nature are quite similar in general.  We look at the result, eg. a beautiful flower in the garden, we also see that the cause of that beauty is completely functioning.  The cause is the right conditions and so forth.  If we see the Buddha's teachings as a result, and we can see its causes too as something wonderful.  That is the reason of effect.  Logically, the Buddha's doctrine is the dharmin, or subject of inference.  Non-confusion, or authenticity is what is to be established about it.
66. Which are the criteria of a valid syllogism.  These are discussed below.
67. rjes khyab.  khyab is literally pervasion, meaning that it applies in all cases.
68. The contrapositive.
69. Someone wise might conceivably show others the wrong path; but since buddhas are compassionate, they will not do so, any more than eg, a mother will purposely deceive her child.  We know the Buddha has compassion, because compassion is intrinsically part of the seed of enlightenment.  Therefore he will not deceive others.
70. In summary, first Buddha, as the benefit for himself, attained and  realized everything through wisdom.  Also he has wisdom, compassion, and so forth to help beings according to their inclination, capabilities, and wishes.  [khams: element qua. mental state, their interest: eg whether they are inclined to sutra, vinaya, or whatever.  dbang po, powers or capabilities, bsam pa is different thoughts and wishes.  Each teaching brings its described result, so no one is deceived.  So that teaching is without error and deception, khrul med.
71. Omniscience comes with enlightenment.  One who is not enlightened cannot turn the wheel of Dharma completely properly.
72. gshegs pa has a meaning like de bshin gshegs pa, thus-gone, tathagata, and means  "realized."  The tathagata is a realized one, or buddha.  He understands perfectly, goes with complete understanding, and has developed the wisdom of enlightenment.
73. The Buddha has omniscience and by that he can turn the wheel of all kinds of teachings of the true and provisional meanings and so forth, as required by all kinds of sentient beings.  That kind of thing comes about through dgnos stobs rigs pa, reasoning by the power of the things themselves.  These quotes show that the thesis is supported by the teachings.  KPSR.
74. The one knowledge of Buddha clears up all objects of knowledge and knows the measure of all knowledges.  KPSR.
75. You, Buddha, have demolished all the conceptions of worldly beings by going beyond them.
76. KPSR explained this as meaning about the same as the previous line.
77. sgeg pa'i rdo rje.
78. Khab is palace or realm. so this is a blazing realm of the fire of wisdom without ignorance.
79. As tshad ma/ pramana.
80. Some teachings are for different sorts of mind.  KPSR related this primarily to the idea of differences in capacity for receiving the true meaning teachings, which causes the Buddha to present some teachings in a provisional form.
81. Whatever Buddha taught, for example the four noble truths, his speech is found to be correct.  Therefore we can infer that he is a buddha without obscuration.  We know that what he taught was true, because he showed what to accept and reject, and the method for doing that.   Everyone would like to get rid of suffering and achieve peace, but Buddha actually showed the perfect method to remove ego-clinging so that we can do this.  As regards the principle purpose of his teaching, to remove samsaric obscuration and to obtain nirvana, Buddha was never deceptive.  Those who practice as he says will reach the fruition he describes without fail.  From this we know he is perfect.
82. If practitioners see that certain practices are good and suitable for them, they will follow them; but if they are found in practice to be deceitful, unsuitable contradictory, or fruitless they won't.  That is obvious.  This is the opposite approach to what the Hindus sometimes said in the old debates,  "The Vedas are non-deceptive because they come from the gods."  If Buddhists do not to go beyond saying, "the teachings are true because the Buddha taught them, that is no better.  KPSR.
83.  {shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa sdud pa tshigs su bcad pa
 Sanchayagaathaa-prajnaapaaramitaa-suutra, condensed perfection of wisdom sutra.
84. In brief, Buddha's teachings are true, 1) because they correspond to the true nature, and 2nd because if we practice them, we achieve the promised result.  KPSR.
85. Senseless:  For example, debating whether a raven has teeth or not is useless for getting enlightened.  Wrong sense, means being confused or mixed up about meanings.  For example, because of falling into extreme views, one may adopt wrong practices, eg. seeking to stabilize eternal bliss or blank emptiness.  The Buddha's teaching doesn't have these two errors so it is meaningful, beneficial,, and has the true sense, don ldan.  KPSR.
86. Thos here means study without contemplation and meditation.  rtsod pa is fixation on argument and criticizing others. The Buddha does not have these two errors, and therefore his teachings focus on establishing true vision of how things are through genuine practice of the path as a whole.
87. nyan g.yo deception and hypocrisy.  Someone pretends to be very holy and special etc.  brtse med means not being caring about others, having no compassion.  Because the Buddha's teaching does not have these two faults,  it removes all sufferings from oneself and others.
88. bstan bcos here means the teachings altogether.  KPSR
89. Only Buddhas and their teachings have such qualities, and others don't.
90. Buddha's teaching is meaningful, and therefore connected to compassion.  Its compassionate activity is removing cause of the three realms of samsara.  Its result is the ultimate state of peace.  The teaching of the great sages [drang srong = .ri.shi] is like that.   Without lack of knowledge, they and it have infallible meaning and benefit.
91. Such teaching will lead to the same enlightenment, and so it should be honored like the teaching of the Buddha.
92. In one of his praises.
93. Such a sage has found the middle way between eternalism and nihilism.  KPSR.
94. Without contradiction, kha 'dzin ma byed.  This, which is explained below does not mean that they withstand analysis for being absolutely true.
95. These two lines are very famous.  Dignaga had written many teachings on pramana, but in this text he brings them all together.  This is part of his first praise to the Buddha.  He wrote this on his cape.  He wrote it three times.  The first time the earth shook seven times.  The second chapter of Dharmakirti's tshad ma rnam 'grel is based on these two lines.  It establishes that the Buddha is truth and genuineness in a uniquely excellent way.   Having seen that the teaching is true, we see that Buddha too is correct and authentic.  Buddhas give up all errors from the root.  They know all objects without blockage.  The perfect teaching has a perfect teacher.  He has perfect intention and activities, and so there is a perfect result. Buddha himself attained the realization of a sugata and also his activity helps others.
96. tshad mar gyur: gaining conviction, attaining pramana. KPSR said that the meaning is not simply that one has true ideas or perceptions, but that one becomes a genuine being as a whole.
97. Five attributes are mentioned.  tshad par 'gyur, becoming means that the Buddha is authentic, true, honest, and non-deceitful. 'gro la phan, for the benefit of sentient beings, means intent to do benefit for all others impartially.  ston pa, teacher, means that he has the ability, skill, and methods to teach perfectly.  bder gshegs, sugata, means that he has perfectly gone to the enlightened state.  This is the source of the ability to be a perfect teacher.  So therefore he performs his various activities as skyob pa, protector, of beings  All these establish that the Buddha is a perfect teacher.
98. I praise you with great respect and also invoke respect from others.
99. Here wish = intention.  KPSR
100. Sbyor ba, the application of his intention, is his showing teachings in accord with the needs and capabilities of beings.
101. This praise to the Buddha says that Buddha has perfect cause and result, therefore he is perfect = tshad ma.  The perfect cause is that his intention and actions are perfect.  bsam pa is intention, compassion for all sentient beings without exception.  The result is the two benefits for oneself and others.  Those people who gain the perfect benefit for oneself become sugatas.  This is understand in three ways:  They have gone beautifully, without returning, and gone completely.  Going beautifully means that they  give up all major obscurations that are causes of samsaric birth.  Going without returning means giving up any cause of returning to the world.  The Buddha is even beyond nirvana.  Gone completely means that he has no stains of obscurations, but has gone completely into enlightenment.  Those three senses apply in three ways.  The first shows that Buddha is very special compared to people, Buddhist or otherwise, with only a little temporary detachment.  Second, Buddha is beyond all the arhats and pratyekabuddhas.  Third he is beyond those of the mahayana, no matter how learned and accomplished who have not removed all the obscurations.
102. Perfect beneficial activity for others means the Buddha can give others the teaching, and liberate them.  KPSR.
103. If, through the three pramanas, we have incomparable certainty wisdom within our hearts, that confidence is ultimate devotion, the ultimate refuge and Praise, and the root of enlightenment, and all blessings etc.
104. yid khyed shes kyi ded pas.
105. We see that all these are consistent, without the confusion that characterizes samsara.
106. i.e. reality, things as they are.
107. This is by KPSR himself.  He had a dream in which he was reciting it.  At first he thought it was from text, but could not find it.  Still he rather liked it and decided to include it.
108. Like the sun.  KPSR.
109. It can also be known in this way.  KPSR.  See above this distinction between the essence and blessing of Manjushri.
110. Or in terms of the three reasons, rtags gsum the 'bras bu rtags, like seeing smoke and by that establishing fire.
111. The sangha possesses this awareness and liberating qualities of realization.  These inner qualities arise from certainty-wisdom.   Also it is the sangha who practices the Buddha's teaching, and so establishes this certainty-wisdom.
112. It shows that people who do this are special, since they respect someone else.  KPSR.
113. bstan bcos, usually shastra, as above.  Here KPSR said that the sense was more the teachings in general, and US said that the connotation was the teachings when delivered for certain purposes.
114. This increases merit so that enlightenment is gained.  If reasoning is rightly used it inspires people to appreciate directly the experiential meaning of the teachings and teacher.  But often the result is just the opposite, to make it all seem very conceptualized, abstract, and proud of its orthodoxy.  It becomes uselessly circular.  The teachings are true because the Buddha taught them, and the Buddha is an authentic, true person because the teachings say so.  We have to be inspired to see for ourselves what is meant.  For example, the Gelugpas often begin more with reasoning and then practice.  The Nyingmas and Kagyus tend to start in the middle with some of both.  But in the end, if they practice well, they all go to the same place.  KPSR.
115. 1 of the six root texts of the Kadampa school.  So merit, as gained from expressions of homage and so forth, is important.  KPSR
116. legs bzhad.  Literally it means good/ excellent speech/ explanation/ teaching.  It refers to all the true teachings of the sutras, tantras, and commentaries. KPSR
117. yang dag brten, completely relying on. KPSR
118. His commentary on Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyaamakakaarikas.  First Chandrakirti quotes the Buddha's teaching in the sutras, then he comments on the meaning and says "that is what it says."  Then KPSR has a shes do mark the end of the quotation and notes that many others have also said this.
119. nges pa, certainty.
120. KPSR  Here "the world" means "the individual beings in the world."  These beings arise in dependence on the five skandhas.  "Beings" is a name imputed to the skandhas, so ultimately it is they that are the world.  KPSR.  The usage is something like the french tout le monde.  Literally it means "all the world," but the sense is "Everybody." The worldly truth is not the real truth about the world, which would be the absolute truth.  It is the erroneous beliefs about the world of people in general.
   Then why not translate a'jig rten as people?  That would obscure other meanings.  The Chandrakirti passage also says the content of worldly truth = the skandhas, and explains this by saying it depends on the skandhas. How does it depend? Primarily logically, in the sense that entities in the world are imputed on the basis of patterns of dharmas included under the skandhas.  Causal and compositional dependence presupposes the existence of these imputed entities. In that sense a'jig rten includes all statements about entities in the world, persons and otherwise that the world's opinion would say are true.  To make sense of this in English it helps to remember that while a'jig rten is usually translated "the world" that meaning comes from the literal sense "that which is a support of = is characterized by destruction."  The point is also being made that entities described in worldly truth = entities dependent on the skandhas = destructible entities.
121. There are two occurrences of zhes.  The first indicates that Chandrakirti is referring to a similar quote from Nagarjuna.  The second, zhes sogs, refers to what Chandrakirti has said as a whole, and notes that many others have also said this.  KPSR.
122. bden gnyis dgnos pa'i gnas tshul.  The meaning would be pretty much the same if dgnos pa'i were omitted.  The primarily intended meaning is not "the two truths as the nature of things in general."  rdzi zab read rdze zab.  KPSR.  He considered rendering it, "the nature of these things the two truths."  Then he decided "the actual nature of the two truths" was better.
123. mtha' dpyad na, literally search out the edge, analyze the details.  system: rnam bzhag.
124. nges tshig refers to the meaning of the individual words of a term, in terms of semantics, etymology and the like.  This sort of analysis is very common in Tibetan texts.  Thus, for kun rdzob, relative truth,  one would discuss what kun means and what rdzob means.  In sanskrit it would involve breaking a word into components, eg. sam-v.riti.
125. mtshan nyid is more general meaning of a term.  It can mean essential characteristic, defining characteristic, or definition.  Students in monastic colleges learn many formulae defining Dharma terms.  Both these formulae and the characteristics they describe are mtshan nyid.
126. blo dang dbang pos bsam pa'i yul.  At first KPSR interpreted this as mind = sems or shes pa, dualistic consciousness and the objects of the five senses.  Then he seemed to think the meaning might be clearer if the phrase were broken down as blo yis bsam pa'i yul dang dbang pos bsam pa'i yul.  Objects contemplated by mind and objects contemplated by the five senses.  The meaning is ultimately the same, but the second makes it clearer that mind insofar as it is beyond dualistic objects is not included.  Relative objects are things we perceive "like Buddhas, dogs, and raccoons."
127. nges tshig.
128. Svaalak.shana, rang mtshan.  Individual characteristics are not deceptive on their own everyday practical level.  We are not cheated in our ordinary expectations from knowing that fire is hot and so forth.  We would be cheated on that level if we believed fire was cold.  This is true even though on another level "Fire is hot" and "fire is cold" are on the same footing in being unable to bear analysis for being statements of absolute truth.
129. The names and systems of the two truths were formulated by the madhyamaka and higher schools to bring clearer understanding to the notions of worldly beings.  They also made further divisions of true and false within the relative, making appropriate divisions within symbolic knowledge for that purpose or side of things.  KPSR.
130. gshal bya, Literally measure.  KPSR.  One investigates things, trying to encompass them from every angle, until finally one sees them as they are.
131.  <the mind of>.
132. If you want to know more about one you should also study the other.  The lions look in opposite directions with their necks joined.  That is a symbol of strength that will not fall into the two extremes. KPSR
133. byed las
134. <by the style of arising>.
135. khyab chung.  If we think interdependence, tendrel, is concerned only with everyday matter of causal succession, such as the arising from each other of seed, stem, flower, and fruit, our understanding is very small and partial.  Everything in the universe is within tendrel, and everything constantly depends on everything else.  All the atoms in the whole of space are connected and so forth.  This connection is not only within a single moment in time, but extends throughout the three times.  That is to say, it transcends everyday notions of space and time.
136. This is a famous sanskrit grammar.  It is in the Tengyur.  It contains all the Sanskrit-Tibetan rules of translation that were made at the time of Trisong Detsen's son Mutig Tsenpo.  He invited many great masters like Vairochana, Kawa Peltseg and so forth.  For example that is why bhagavat is always translated bcom ldan 'das and so forth.  sgra is sound, or word, and sbyor is how to apply them.  sgra sometimes refers to sanskrit.  For instance sgra mkhas doesn't mean someone who knows about sound, but an expert on Sanskrit.
137. 'du 'phrod 'du is joined or gathered together, and 'phrod mingled, or harmonious meeting.  Things meet and cooperate.  The universe is a coop, as it were, a condominium.  Also there is a sense of things working as they are supposed to:  Weapons cut, medicines cure, and whatever.  This is a mtshan nyid of tendrel, its definition, what is it really.  Mtshan nyid means definition, but also characteristic or principle.  For example, like people are essentially characterized by being able to think.
138. What arises interdependently does not arise without cause.  Non-cause, rgyu min, means a completely external cause, unrelated to the nature of what arises.  An eternal creator would be such a cause, whose nature is totally unrelated to that of the temporary things that arise.  For example, as barley does not come from rice.  Some systems say time brings about everything.  It makes us sleep, wake, get old, die etc.
139. nyer len:  for example eating food is not like this.  The creation of an embryo from the father and mother is.  The things in this list are so connected.  For example sdug bsngal nyer len phung po eg the skandhas are closely connected to suffering.
140. go 'byed,
141. Often name and form is explained as the five skandhas.  In that case feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness are the skandhas of name.
142. rig pa.
143. len pa.
144. smra ngags 'den read smre ngags 'don.  KPSR.
145. Literally ignorance etc.
146. dmigs pa'i yul.  This is pretty much equivalent to objects of knowledge here.  KPSR.
147. Emotional patterns, including ignorance, focus our attention or knowledge.  Then the sense consciousnesses assist and reflect the emotion.  We can also say emotion is projected onto sense-perception.  Because of ignorance these are seen as independent external objects.  The emotions are like a basic ground.  The senses help project them.  Then they increase.  There is always ignorance, but without the helping conditions the emotions arise as the fully developed suffering of samsara.
148. The system of karma, the kleshas, and suffering refers to the close association of these elements in terms of the twelve nidanas.  Of the 12 nidanas the first is ignorance, the eighth is attachment, srid pa, and the ninth is len pa, accepting.  These three are known as kleshas.  'du bshes, the second, and the tenth are called las, karma.  The rest are called sdug bsngal.  There are seven of those.  They arise through the agency of the six inner elements or khams, which are related to the body.  Thus the inner earth element makes us solid, the inner water element makes us moist etc.  Here the subject is inner tendrel as related to our personal consciousness and skandhas, as opposed to the system of external tendrel as a whole.
149. bsam pa yid byed.  Here both terms have a similar meaning, attention etc. except that bsam pa refers more to the object and yid byed to the subject.  Both terms also have other meanings.
150. nyer len.
151. The point is that as long as there is dualistic consciousness etc there will be rebirth.
152. 'jug pa. KPSR.
153. 'phos.  From the viewpoint of absolute analysis.
154. Generations of students learn to chant the same texts from each other, but recitation involves different word-events.  Lamps may be used to light each other, but each has its own individual flame.  Things do not actually go into a mirror when their reflections appear there.  The power of producing fire is not in a burning glass by itself, but works by its concentrating the rays of the sun.  People insulted at work may go home and insult their dogs and cats, but it is not the same insult-event in each case.  The continuity of the skandhas in rebirth should be seen as analogous to these examples.  KPSR.
155. 'bras bu ltos pa rigs pa: the effect depends on the cause.  That connection of reliance or dependence is reliable and unchanging, and makes systematic sense.  One looks from the effect to the cause.
bya ba byed pa'i rigs pa: the reasoning of causal functioning.  One looks from the viewpoint of the cause producing the effect.
'thad pa grub pa'i rigs pa:  suitable establishment.  What happens is natural and in order.  It is proper for fire to burn.  That it is what it usually does, and what it is "supposed" to do.  It snows in winter and rains in summer.  Water washes things.  Medicines heal and poisons kill.  It can also be used to describe valid proofs, arguments, and so forth.  Here the point is that sees things as they are without exaggeration and deprecation.  The difference from the reasoning of action or function is that there is an emphasis not just on what something does, but on this being "suitable" within the system of relationships of things as they are.  What is done fits in the system of things.
chos nyid rigs pa:  Again this is like the nature of fire being hot, and water moist.  This is more concerned with the quality of the thing itself and the last with what it might or can be expected to produce.  For example fire is hot by nature, and therefore it is capable of burning, cooking, and so forth.
rigs pa can be applied to objects, e.g. seeing the nature and proper action of fire as it is; but it is also a mental state of seeing these natures and functions etc as they are.  So it also has a subjective aspect.
156. The nature of things is not bizarre, capricious, and utterly unfathomable but reasonable and orderly in the sense of being workable.  This well-known order really exists on the phenomenal level.  We can discover it properly, and this is rigs pa.  Being able to cook dinner and wash the dishes involves knowing things as they are to some extent.  If we think fire will cool things off, we don't have rigs pa.
157. rigs pa.
158. Ie not falsifiable and irrefutable by anything.
159. 'bras bu'i sgno nas rgyu'i tshogs nus sgrub par byed pa rgyu bya ba byed pa'i mtshan nyid. producing cause/ function: EG from barley seeds + the other necessary conditions barley grows and nothing else.
160. rgyu'i sgo nas a'bras bu'i tshogs nus sgrub par byed pa a'bras bu ltos pa'i rigs pa'i mtshan nyid.
161. chos kun ngo bo gang yin pa sgrub par byed pa ngo bo chos nyid rigs pa'i mtshan nyid.  chos kun ngo bo isn't the nature of all dharmas [the absolute, emptiness] here.  It refers to the natures of all dharmas, e.g heat for fire, wetness for water, though included among those is the nature of emptiness, the absolute.
162. rgyu a'bras ngo bo nyid gsum gyi shes bya gnas lugs dngos stobs gyi rigs pas sgrub pa a'thad pa sgrub pa'i rigs pa'i mtshan nyid.
163. mngon par grub pa: this can mean fully/ actually/ perfectly/ manifestly establishing/ existing; but here the difference between the sense bya ba byed pa in the last phrase and this is best considered in terms of the definitions of the different kinds of reasoning.
164. yul dang tshad.  tshad here the same sense as tshad ma.
165. mthun snang su grub pa.
166. dgnos gshi.
167. thal sa.
168. bsgrub pa thal drags.
169. thal drags.
170. Ego.
171. In abhidharma perception is often said to be "direct."  This makes the most sense when we say we have direct knowledge of our own experiences.  It means that the way we usually talk about experiences is such that we do not speak of experiences AS SUCH as obscured, or say that we do not know what they really are. We may say that a certain experience is obscured or illusory perception of an external object.  Abhidharma sometimes gets in trouble by talking about direct perception of external objects.  Later schools rightly refuted such statements, which entail an absolute knowledge of external objects that could never be wrong or incomplete.
172. It is said to be proper to establish such things in traditional Buddhist philosophy on the ordinary level, in abhidharma etc.  What is not said to be  proper is to take this kind of reasoning beyond its proper scope and attempt to use such reasoning to establish such entities as truly existing absolutes.  The analysis for the absolute of madhyamaka is said to establish the sense in which this is improper.  One also has to explain the seeming paradox of such statements as "The absolute is beyond words" of "The absolute is empty."
173. lkog
174. zal sar skyel ba.
175. dngos po['i] stobs kyi rigs pa.
176. 'thob.
177. rgyu bya ba byed pa'i rigs pa.
178. byed pa.
179. bya ba.
180. gdags.
181. 'di dag.
182. 'ga' zhig.
183. a'dzin.
184. nyer len gyi rgyu.  This is variously translated substantial cause, perpetuating cause etc.  It is opposed to conditions because it is more directly connected or is the thing that would ordinarily be said to turn into the effect as the seed does the sprout.
185. lhan cig byed pa'i rkyen.
186. In abhidharma consciousnesses are momentary.  Ordinarily we commonly speak of being aware of things over a space of time.  This is explained in abhidharma as being due to a causal succession of dharmas like successive frames of a movie. [Let us ignore for now that apprehension is also said to become conceptualized or mentalized].
187. Not mentioned in the verse above.
188. sems kyi rjes 'jug.
189. sems dang mtshan nyid mtshan gshi.
190. rjes 'jug pa rnams.  Sometimes this is translated continued functioning.
191. sems kyi rjes su a'jug pa.
192. sdom.
193. 'bras bu gcig skyes pa.
194. rnam par sngo sogs kyi 'dzin stangs.
195. lung ma bstan.  The essence = the universal absolute essence, enlightenment, sugatagarbha etc.
196. so sor rtags pa'i stobs.

197. This of course raises a question of infinite regress, which has been dealt with in various ways historically.
198. dmigs pa'i rkyen.
199. 'jug ldog.
200. bzo = bzo gnas kyi rig pa, mechanical arts and crafts, one of the five sciences, rig [pa'i] gnas lnga. And such, sogs refers to the rest of these as enumerated below.